St. Edmund Campion Catechism Group - Series 4 Lesson 16.2

Theology for Beginners: Chp 16. Grace, Virtues, Gifts
Theology for Beginners: All chapters
Catechism: Q110-127
Bible: Rom 7
Catholic Encyclopedia: Sin
Aquinas 101: Freedom, HabitsVice & Sin, Virtue, Prudence, Justice, Fortitude, TemperanceThe Fonts of Morality
Summa Theologica: Prima Secundae Q71-89, Q85ffIaIIaeQ85a3
Companion to the Summa: Vol II
Books & Articles: Prummer OP: Handbook of Moral Theology; IME: Law & Freedom
Slides: The Moral Act, Order in Man, Disorder in Man

How grace is lost

  1. Recap:

    Chapter 1: Why study theology?

    - Theology is wisdom which is the knowledge of all things in relation to their highest cause.

    - Theology is the greatest of all sciences by the sublimity of its object: God; and by the certitude of its conclusions: the certitude of faith.

    - Theology teaches us our finality: the finality of man is the supernatural perfection of all his faculties - the greatest among these are his intellect and will.

    - Theology helps us attain our finality in respect of ourselves by the perfect love of God.

    - Theology helps us attain our finality in respect of our neighbour: if we love God, then we love everything He loves.

    Chapter 2: Spirit

    - A spirit is an immaterial intelligent living being (types: God, the angels and the souls of men)

    - A soul is defined as the first principle of life of those material things which live (plants, animals and men). Plants, animals and men have souls, but only the souls of men are spirits.

    - Properties: a spirit does not change in its being, does not corrupt, does not die (and is therefore eternal), has no mass, no shape, and no place e say that spirits are subsistent, which means that they have all they need to exist - they do not need a body to exist (like a plant or animal soul).

    Acts: to know and love. No material organ is required for these activities.

    Chapter 3: The Infinite Spirit

    God is the Infinite Spirit. 

    - God is all knowing, all loving, all powerful

    - God is His own existence

    - God was not created, He does not change, He has no past and future, God perpeturally in the present.

    - God is naturally everywhere: by His essence (per essentiam), by His power (per potentiam), by His knowing (per scientiam)

    God is Actus Purus, He cannot ever be in potency to doing anything; He is His action.  St. Thomas says that He is Actus Purus – one , simple, infinite and perfect action which is always in the present.

    Chapter 4: The Blessed Trinity

    The Blessed Trinity is the term used to express the central doctrine on the Christian religion: the truth that in the unity of the Godhead there are Three Persons, the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost, these Three Persons being truly distinct from one another. There is one being, with one nature and there are Three Persons. The Blessed Trinity is known only by revelation, but can subsequently be explored by reason.

    Chapter 5: The Three Persons

    In an attempt to understand as much as possible about the Blessed Trinity using revelation and our knowledge of the intellect and being (by the science of metaphysics), St. Thomas, building on theologians before him, makes a best attempt to reconcile the unity of God and the distinction of the Three Persons in God. God has one nature by which the Three Persons operate. The distinction of the Three Persons is discerned in the mutually opposed relations resulting from the act of God knowing Himself and loving Himself. The Persons, are distinguished as the subsistant relations or Paternity, Filiation and Passive Spiration.

    Most of us, however, do not have a sufficient grasp of metaphysics to understand this complex theory and so a simpler one is proposed: In the act of knowing Himself, God generates a mental Word which is identical to the Generator. In the generator we discern the Father, in the generated, we discern the Son. These are Persons Who will naturally love each other, this love being personified in the Holy Ghost

    Chapter 6Making the doctrine of the Trinity a living and loved reality

    For most people something like that happens when they embrace a mystery of the faith revealed to them by the Church:

     - first there is an intellectual response as they grasp the theological exposition of the mystery

     - then a vital response as the wonder and beauty of the mystery draws the observer in

     - then a loving response as the mystery becomes a light and a power in our lives.

    Chapter 7: Creation

    God created all things from nothing and sustains all things in existence from moment to moment - all for His glory. 

    Chapter 8: The nature of man

    Man is made in the image and likeness of God, possessing an intellect and a will. He is different from the animals because he loves the things he knows whereas animals are attracted to the thing they sense; and he can choose what to love whereas animals are attracted to things by nature. Man is capable of moral good or evil, whereas animals always act according to their nature. The ultimate purpose of man is to know and love God. The ultimate purpose of non-intelligent creatures is to adorn creation for the glory of God.

    Chapter 9: The Supernatural Life

    Man is made for the Beatific Vision (that perfect possesion of God in heaven) but with his fallen nature he is radically incapable both of attaining this end and remaining in this state of perfect happiness. By sanctifying grace, man begins a supernatural life here below. He is transformed by grace and receives supernatural virtues and the Gift of the Holy Ghost with grace. He begins to live and act with the life and actions of God. He enters on to the path to heaven and progresses towards it. If he die in a state of grace, then the supernatural life within him is perfected to the point of perfect bliss in union with God.

    Chapter 10: The Fall

    Despite sanctifying grace, supernatural virtues, Gifts of the Holy Ghost, and the praternatural gifts, Adam fell for the temptation to become like God. This was the sin of pride. He was left bereft of everything supernatural and praeternatural, and therefore incapble of attaining that for which he was made: the Beatific Vision. The act against the injunction of God is called Original Sin, the consequence of this act (the deprivation of grace and gifts) is also called Original Sin. The Divine Will ordained that the Original Sin (consequence) be suffered by all the offspring of Adam. 

    Chapter 11: The Redeemer

    Jesus Christ is the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity Who operates through a divine nature as God, and through a human nature as man. The two natures are hypostatically united in the Person which allow him to act as a man but with acts of infinite value because His Person is divine. By taking to himself his human nature at the Incarnation, Jesus Christ was able to redeem mankind.

    Chapter 12: The Redemption

    The Redemption is the (a) freeing of man from the debt (in justice to God) of sin, and (b) the restoration of man's supernatural union with God. Our Lord Jesus Christ objectively redeemed all mankind by His Incarnation, Life, Passion & Death, Resurrection and Ascension into heaven. It is for man to participate in this act of redemption by living a life of faith, hope and charity through the means that the Church provides (teaching, laws and liturgy). Such a life constitutes mans subjective redemption.

    Chapter 13: The Visible Church

    The visible Church is a hierarchy of baptised souls united under one head (Jesus Christ) who adhere to the teaching of the Church, submit to the authority of the Church, and worship God with the liturgy of the Church. Members of the visible Church may be living members (when they are in a state of sanctifying grace) or dead members (when they are in mortal sin).

    Chapter 14: The Mystical Body of Christ

    The Church binds chosen men and angels together into one body, but unlike any other union in the universe, the reason of unity is above the order of nature, and immeasurably more intimate - it is the unity of living the same Life. Every living member of the Church lives by participating in the Divine Life (by sanctifying grace). Inevitable with this unity of Life, there is a unity of love and obedience and intention, but these are consequences rather than causes of unity. The unity by grace is called the Mystical Body of Christ.

    Chapter 15: The Mother of God

    Mary is called the Mother of God because she is the mother of Jesus Christ according to His human nature. Jesus Christ is God, therefore, Mary is the Mother of God. For this reason she was preserved from Original Sin at her conception, preserved from corruption at the end of her earthly life, and assumed body and soul into heaven. She is given the title of Co-Redemptorix on account of the closeness of her participation in the act of Redemption; she is called Mediatrix of all grace on account of her divine motherhood and her uniquely privilged role as intercessor with her Son.

    Chapter 16.1 Grace, virtues and gifts

    To share in God's perfection, to be inclined towards God, and to know & love God, we must become co-natural with God so that we share in His being, powers, and actions. We share in His being by sanctifying grace; we share in his power by supernaturalised faculties; and we share in His actions by acts of supernatural virtue or acts impelled by the Gifts of the Holy Ghost.

  2. The Moral Act

    Definition of Moral Act: The human act measured by the rule of behaviour (natural and revealed law).

    The morality of an act consists in its relationship to a standard of morality (ie. the act measured by the rule of behaviour)

    - the ultimate objective standard being the eternal law

    - and the proximate objective standard is human reason,

    - and the subjective standard is the conscience of the individual.

    There exist three types of morality:

      (i)   good

      (ii)  evil

      (iii) moral indifference

    There are three components to the moral act:

      (i)   The Act itself: If it is intrinsically evil, then nothing can make it good (e.g. lying, adultery, suicide).  

      (ii)  The Intention (End):

            - The intention can change the morality of an act from good to evil, to a greater/lesser good/evil, but never from evil to good.

            - The end does not justify the means. (eg. 1. neglect of family to help a stranger diminishes the evil of neglecty of family; 2. giving a gift to make another jealous turns a good act to evil)

      (iii) The Circumstances

            Definition: Moral circumstances are those moral conditions which are added to and modify the already existing moral substance of the act (eg. the added circumstance of hitting your father in the case of assault). 

           - First Principle: Human acts derive some morality from their circumstances. 

              In order that these circumstances influence the moral character of an act it is necessary

              a) that they themselves be morally good or bad, that is to say that they be in conformity with or lack conformity with human reason 

              b) that their moral character be recognised and intended at least to some extent by the agent.

           - Second PrincipleSome circumstances alter the morality of an act completely (e.g. stealing a sacred vessel, or giving alms because of a vow changes the morality, giving alms), others affect merely the degree of morality (eating four creamcakes as opposed to three).

  3. Sin

    Definition: Sin is an offence against God by any thought, word, deed, or omission against the law of God.

    Division of sin:

      (i) Original Sin (committed only by Adam as an act, but afflicts all men in its effects)

      (ii) Actual Sin:

          a) Mortal Sin

          b) Venial Sin

  4. Mortal Sin

    Definition: A mortal sin is an act against the law of God which is

     a) a grave act

     b) committed with full avertence (consciousness) and

     c) committed with full consent (knowing its morality)

    Effects: It is a rebellion against God's will which makes the state of grace incongruous in the soul.  Mortal sin, therefore, causes us to lose the life of grace in the soul together with the supernatural gifts and virtues. We can say that the mortal sinner rips God from his soul. It occurs when a man pursues a temporal good (e.g. another man's wife) which does not lead to God. Each sinful act also increases vice which make the next sin easier.

  5. Venial Sin

    Definition: A venial sin is an offence against the law of God which is not a radical rebellion against God's will.

    Effects: It does not cause a loss or even a diminishing of grace, but it does erect obstacles (vices) on the path to God. It disposes a soul to mortal sin.

  6. Sin brings disorder to man

    (i) Natural disorder

    Before Adam sinned, there was a perfect interior order between intellect, will and appetites. When he committed Original Sin, a disorder was introduced into mankind by "transmission" from Adam. 

    For all types of sin: While man retains the the powers of the soul (intellect and will) in tact, sin diminishes his natural inclination to good acts (i.e. his virtue) and begets habits to evil acts (vice). Sin diminishes virtue and increases vice. The order within man is therefore hampered with the following effect (see Summa Prima Secundae Question 85 Article 3 IaIIaeQ85a3):

    - the intellect is prone to ignorance as the virtue of prudence is diminished

    - the will is prone to malice (deliberately breaking the law) as the virtue of justice is diminished

    - the irrascible appetite is unchecked due to weakness as the virtue of fortitude is diminished

    - the concupiscible appetite is unchecked due to concupiscence as the virtue of temperance is diminished

    The result is that:

    - the passions and the intellect fight for control of the will

    - the judgement of the intellect is prone to error

    - vices increase, virtue diminish

    (ii) Supernatural disorder

        Original Sin: When Adam committed Original Sin, he lost the state of Original Justice which was the state of grace and the supernatural gifts & virtues that he was created with. He also lost the praternatural gifts of knowledge, integrity, impassibility and immortality.

        Mortal Sin: When a man conmmits a mortal sin, he loses the state of grace (all sanctifying grace), the supernatural virtues, and the Gifts of the Holy Ghost.

        Venial Sin: When a man conmmits a venial sin, he does not lose supernatural grace, virtues or gifts, but he increases vice which disposes him to mortal sin and slows his supernatural progress in grace, virtues and gifts.